Data is not Information.

This may come as a surprise, but it is true. Data are nothing more than the correct administration of measurements or observations, and nothing less. The Data are set of *values,* or *numbers* if you prefer.

Information is a *function* over a distribution. And this distribution represents our state of knowledge.

Suppose someone throws a dice five times with outcomes 1,4,6,3, and 6. These are the data. One may not suspect anything peculiar about these numbers and assume that the dice is fair.

Until we learn that the dice was thrown by a professional gambler, who makes his living this way. Now the two 6-s may appear less innocent as before.

Now, the data are still the same set of numbers 1,4,6,3, and 6, but our state of knowledge has changed. And therefore our expectations for the next roll of the dice.